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  • 屠志浩,李海立,何静文,赵后雨,瞿靖芮,沈兴华.军事孤立封闭环境作业人员标准化神经认知测试的探索[J].第二军医大学学报,2020,41(6):673-679    [点击复制]
  • TU Zhi-hao,LI Hai-li,HE Jing-wen,ZHAO Hou-yu,QU Jing-rui,SHEN Xing-hua.Exploration of standardized neurocognitive test battery for personnel in military isolated and confined environments[J].Acad J Sec Mil Med Univ,2020,41(6):673-679   [点击复制]
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军事孤立封闭环境作业人员标准化神经认知测试的探索
屠志浩1,李海立2,何静文3,赵后雨1,瞿靖芮1,沈兴华1*
0
(1. 海军军医大学(第二军医大学)心理系航海心理学教研室, 上海 200433;
2. 海军潜艇学院潜艇兵训练基地, 青岛 266042;
3. 海军军医大学(第二军医大学)心理系医学心理学教研室, 上海 200433
*通信作者)
摘要:
研究军事孤立封闭环境对作业人员认知功能的影响,首先需要一套合格的神经认知测量工具。目前使用的认知测试存在以下问题:不同研究间使用的不一致性;测量的心理过程不明确;存在练习效应;没有针对性的常模数据;灵敏度、难度、全面性不够。据此提出适用于军事孤立封闭环境的神经认知测试应满足如下要求:(1)方便携带,容易开展测试;(2)测试耗时应尽量短(≤30 min);(3)可重复测量,被试能够较快达到稳定水平;(4)最好是成套测试,检测的认知功能应全面,且必须与完成特定任务密切相关;(5)应有针对军事孤立封闭环境工作人员在一般环境下的常模,以及其随时间变化的测试表现曲线作为对照组数据;(6)认知测试的信效度经过检验;(7)灵敏度较高,测试难度适当;(8)认知测试涉及的心理过程明确且单一,便于解释结果;(9)完成认知测试激活的脑区明确,便于进一步神经心理研究。美国国家航空航天局(NASA)太空飞行认知测试系统Cognition几乎完美契合以上9个要求。未来我军编制神经认知测试时,可在参照Cognition的基础上,着重于提高认知测试装置的便携性、开发计算机自适应认知测验、明确认知测试的纳入标准、开发心理测量学特点一致的平行测验。
关键词:  军事孤立封闭环境|工作绩效|认知|潜艇|南极地区|太空飞行
DOI:10.16781/j.0258-879x.2020.06.0673
投稿时间:2019-10-24修订日期:2019-12-26
基金项目:军队“十二五”计划重大项目(AWS12J002).
Exploration of standardized neurocognitive test battery for personnel in military isolated and confined environments
TU Zhi-hao1,LI Hai-li2,HE Jing-wen3,ZHAO Hou-yu1,QU Jing-rui1,SHEN Xing-hua1*
(1. Department of Naval Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Naval Medical University (Second Military Medical University), Shanghai 200433, China;
2. Submarine Crew Training Base, Navy Submarine Academy, Qingdao 266042, Shandong, China;
3. Department of Medical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Naval Medical University (Second Military Medical University), Shanghai 200433, China
*Corresponding author)
Abstract:
A standardized neurocognitive test battery is needed to study the effects of military isolated and confined environments on the cognitive functions of personnel. The cognitive tests currently in use have the following problems:inconsistency among different studies, no clear psychological processes, the presence of practice effect, absence of related normative data, and insufficiency in sensitivity, difficulty, and comprehensiveness. Therefore it is proposed that the neurocognitive tests for military isolated and confined environments should meet the following requirements:(1) easy to carry and easy to carry out the test; (2) the test time should be as short as possible (≤ 30 min); (3) suitable for repeated measuring, and the subjects can reach a stable level quickly; (4) preferably a complete set of test, the cognitive function should be comprehensively and should be closely related to specific tasks; (5) the test should be based on the norm of military isolated and confined environments and the changing curve with time, which can be used as controls; (6) the reliability and validity of the cognitive test should have been tested; (7) with high sensitivity and appropriate test difficulty; (8) the psychological process involved in the cognitive test is clear and simple, making it easy for result interpretation; and (9) the brain areas activated by cognitive test should be clear, which is convenient for further neuropsychological research. Cognition, American National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) neurocognitive test battery for spaceflight, almost perfectly fits the above nine requirements. In the future when our army develops the neurocognitive test tools based on NASA Cognition, we should emphasize the following four focuses:improving the portability of the cognitive test device, developing computerized adaptive cognitive tests, clarifying the inclusion criteria of cognitive tests, and developing parallel tests with consistent psychometrics characteristics.
Key words:  military isolated and confined environments|job performance|cognition|submarine|Antarctic regions|spaceflight