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  • 王温,王杨凯,谭兴,冯逸飞,王伟忠*.极地环境下人体功能变化及机制的研究进展[J].第二军医大学学报,2020,41(6):680-685    [点击复制]
  • WANG Wen,WANG Yang-kai,TAN Xing,FENG Yi-fei,WANG Wei-zhong*.Changes and mechanisms of body function in polar environment: research progress[J].Acad J Sec Mil Med Univ,2020,41(6):680-685   [点击复制]
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极地环境下人体功能变化及机制的研究进展
王温,王杨凯,谭兴,冯逸飞,王伟忠*
0
(海军军医大学(第二军医大学)海军特色医学中心海洋生物医药与极地医学研究室, 上海 200433
*通信作者)
摘要:
开发利用极地资源是我国“战略新疆域”的重要组成部分。极地环境中寒冷、低压、低氧、强紫外线辐射等极端条件会导致作业人员心血管系统、自主神经系统、昼夜节律等发生一系列适应性和病理性变化。极地环境下心血管疾病风险增加,血管内皮细胞损伤和心血管结构与功能改变是其重要机制,补充膳食硝酸盐及服用抗交感神经药物可能是其潜在预防手段。冷刺激、低氧及紫外线辐射对自主神经系统平衡的影响或许也是极地作业人员身体功能发生改变的关键因素。极地作业人员除面对极端气候和地理条件外,还会因极昼和极夜而发生昼夜节律变化,研究表明褪黑素的分泌与昼夜节律高度相关,提示维持体内褪黑素正常分泌可能是调节昼夜节律的有效途径。此外,极地环境中各种极端条件也可导致作业人员发生呼吸、消化、内分泌系统疾病。因此明确极地环境下人体发生的适应性及病理性变化及其机制,可为极地作业人员适应极地环境及极地医学研究提供参考和借鉴。
关键词:  极地|心血管系统|自主神经系统|生理机制
DOI:10.16781/j.0258-879x.2020.06.0680
投稿时间:2020-03-31修订日期:2020-04-16
基金项目:武器装备军内科学研究项目(HJ20182C080381),海军军医大学(第二军医大学)教学研究与改革项目(JYA2017003).
Changes and mechanisms of body function in polar environment: research progress
WANG Wen,WANG Yang-kai,TAN Xing,FENG Yi-fei,WANG Wei-zhong*
(Department of Marine Biomedicine and Polar Medicine, Naval Special Medical Center, Naval Medical University (Second Military Medical University), Shanghai 200433, China
*Corresponding author)
Abstract:
Exploration and utilization of polar resources are important for China's "Strategy Xinjiangyu". Extreme conditions such as coldness, low pressure, low oxygen and strong ultraviolet radiation in polar environment can lead to a series of adaptive and pathological changes of the cardiovascular system, autonomic nervous system and circadian rhythm. In polar environment, the risk of cardiovascular diseases is increased, and the injury of vascular endothelial cells and the change of cardiovascular structure and function are the important mechanisms. The supplement of dietary nitrate and the use of anti-sympathetic drugs may be the potential preventive measures. Cold stimulation, low oxygen and ultraviolet radiation can affect the balance of autonomic nervous system, which may be the key factor of body function changes in polar workers. In addition to the extreme climate and geographical conditions, polar workers also face polar day and night which changes the circadian rhythm. Researches have shown that melatonin secretion is highly related to the circadian rhythm, suggesting that maintaining the normal secretion of melatonin may be an effective way to regulate circadian rhythm. In addition, various extreme conditions in the polar environment can also lead to respiratory, digestive and endocrine system diseases. It is necessary to clarify the adaptability, pathological changes and mechanisms of human body in polar environment, providing references for polar workers to adapt to the polar environment and polar medical research.
Key words:  polar region|cardiovascular system|autonomic nervous system|physiological mechanism