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  • 韩一芳,张宏伟,曹广文*.2009年新型甲型H1N1流感流行特征及防控措施[J].第二军医大学学报,2009,30(6):610-612    [点击复制]
  • HAN Yi-fang,ZHANG Hong-wei,CAO Guang-wen*.Epidemic situation of emerging influenza virus A/H1N1 in 2009 pandemic and the prevention/control measures[J].Acad J Sec Mil Med Univ,2009,30(6):610-612   [点击复制]
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2009年新型甲型H1N1流感流行特征及防控措施
韩一芳,张宏伟,曹广文*
0
(第二军医大学基础部流行病学教研室,上海 200433)
摘要:
自2009年3月墨西哥发现首例甲型H1N1流感病例以来,截至2009年5月29日已有53个国家和地区正式报告15 510例确诊病例,2009年4月29日,世界卫生组织(WHO)已将全球流感大流行警告级别从4级提升到5级,并且还有进一步升级的可能。引发此次疫情的病原体是一种之前从未在人和猪身上出现过的新型甲型H1N1流感病毒。该新病毒对奥司他韦(达菲)和扎那米韦较敏感,但对金刚烷胺和金刚乙胺具有抗药性。人群对该病毒普遍易感,经由人-人形式传播。甲型流感在潜伏期内有传播能力,因此必须对密切接触者进行严格检疫;民众应做到勤洗手,咳嗽、喷嚏、吐痰时使用纸巾掩住口鼻等预防措施以减少传播机会。公共场所良好的通风条件、个人良好的卫生习惯和健康状况是预防该病的关键。
关键词:  H1N1甲型流感病毒  流行病学  综合预防
DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1008.2009.0610
投稿时间:2009-05-07修订日期:2009-05-31
基金项目:军队“十一五”科技攻关计划(06G65),上海市自然科学基金(07ZR14141),上海市公共卫生“三年行动计划”重点学科项目(08GWZX0201,08GWZX0101).
Epidemic situation of emerging influenza virus A/H1N1 in 2009 pandemic and the prevention/control measures
HAN Yi-fang,ZHANG Hong-wei,CAO Guang-wen*
(Department of Epidemiology,College of Basic Medical Sciences,Second Military Medical University,Shanghai 200433,China)
Abstract:
Since the first reported case of swine influenza A in Mexico, a total of 15 510 cases have been confirmed in 53 countries by May 29, 2009.On April 29, 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) raised its pandemic alert from grade 4 to grade 5.The virus is described as a new subtype of A/H1N1 and is not detected in pigs or humans previously.The virus is sensitive to oseltamivir and zanamivir, but resistant to amantadine and rimantadine.The genetics of the virus are so novel that humans are unlikely to have much immunity to it.The virus can transmit from human to human; therefore it is necessary to enforce quarantine measure for close contactors because the virus transmits during latency.Precaution methods like covering noses and mouths with a tissue when coughing or sneezing can reduce the transmission opportunity.Hands should be washed frequently with soap, especially after coughing or sneezing.Public places with ventilation conditions, personal health behavior and health condition are critical for the prevention and control of this epidemic.
Key words:  H1N1 subtype influenza A virus  epidemiology  universal precautions